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Proceedings:Style guide

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Proceedings of Wikimania 2007
Style guide



For quotations embedded in paragraphs use single quote marks, with double quote marks for a second quotation contained within the first.

Quotations of over four lines or 40 words should be set into a separate indented paragraph, without quote marks at the beginning or end.


Bold type should be confined to headings and subheadings within articles and not used for emphasis or for the names of organisations or publications. Italics should be used as sparingly as possible for emphasis as the sense of emphasis decreases each time italicisation is used and because italics are used for other purposes (e.g. the titles of books).

When using italics for emphasis within quotations, you should note whether the emphasis is from the original text or has been added by you. You can simply add 'original emphasis' or 'emphasis added' to the citation.


The numbers zero to nine should be expressed in words except where referring to data, measurements or mathematics (e.g. 'six Wikipedia articles' but 'the image measures 5 pixels by 5 pixels').

All whole numbers above nine should appear as figures (e.g. '10', '11', '68'). Numbers at the start of a sentence should be expressed in words ('Fifty years ago...').

Ordinal numbers should be expressed as words (e.g. 'fifteenth').


Percentages should be expressed in figures, not words (i.e. '3 per cent' rather than 'three per cent'). Use 'per cent' rather than '%' if the term is to be used just once or twice in a single individual paragraph; '%' is fine if you are listing a whole series of percentages.


You should explain the first occurrence of each and every acronym (e.g. 'Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)' on the first occurence, 'HTML' later in the manuscript).


  • 24 March 1981
  • 1980s, 1990s
  • 1976-8; 1976-82; 1976-2001
  • nineteenth century; twentieth century; twenty-first century

Citations & references

All use of third-party material must be cited and referenced appropriately, without exception.


Each and every use of a third-party source in the manuscript should be accompanied by a citation in the following format.

One author
The last name of the author and the year of publication of the book, paper or document, as in (Smith 1990). For direct quotations, the page number should also appear, as in (Smith 1990: 12).
Two authors
List the surnames of both authors in order of their appearance in the original publication, followed by date of publication, as in (Smith & Jones 1996). For direct quotations, the page number should also appear, as in (Smith & Jones 1996: 25).
Three or more authors
The citation should appear as (Smith et al. 1997). For direct quotations, the page number should also appear, as in (Smith et al. 1997: 56).

All citations in the manuscript should be fully described in a References section at the end of the document, laid out as described in 'References' below. Items listed in the References section that are not cited in the manuscript will be removed. Citations to items not listed in the References section will be removed from the manuscript.


Full references in the References section should take the following format:

Books by one author
Aaltonen, Sirkku, 2000. Time-Sharing on Stage: Drama Translation in Theatre & Society (Clevedon: Multilingual Matters)
Books by two or more authors
Lakoff, George & Mark Johnson, 2003. Metaphors we Live By (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago)
Chapter in an edited book
Bassnett, Susan, 1985. 'Ways Through the Labyrinth: Strategies and Methods for Translating Theatre Texts' in Hermans, Theo (ed.), The Manipulation of Literature (London: Croon Helm)
Article in a journal
Bennett, Karen, 2002. 'The Duende in England: Lorca's Blood Wedding in Translation', Translation and Literature, 11:1, 24-44
Mateo, Marta, 1995. 'Constraints and Possibilities of Performance Elements in Drama Translation' <http://www.ub.es/~mm/drama/> [accessed 28 January 2006]

See also